ALICJA SZYMCZAKOWA, GENEALOGY DETAILS FROM SIERADZ PROVINCE OF FIFTEEN CENTURY
The article discusses the settlement in 4 villages: Jerwonice, Kłoniszew and Piorunówek in the parish Małyń and Wrońsko in the parish Brzyków. The aim was to determine the membership of ancestral owners. Literature attributes them the herb Poraj (Stanislaw Kozierowski). Analysis of the genealogical relationships and contacts legal (court testimony, warrant, agreement) describes a picture of wide circles of family and neighbors. Maze of different links, frequent change of ownership of the not very wealthy nobles, produce difficulties in identifying people, and thus complications in determining their clan affiliation. Nierwańscy of Jerwonic Poraj could be, but they also had ties to the native Jastrzębiec. In Kłoniszew only one of the families belonged to Poraj, and besides, were Rawicz, Taczała and others. In Piorunówek one group of owners can be linked to Poraj. Were also co-owners of Godzięba (Kiccy) and the nobility of an unidentified ancestral affiliation. Wrońsko village inhabited mostly Poraj, as evidenced by names characteristic of this family and transactions with Poraj from Witów. Next to them were representatives of the families of Sulima and probably of Laska. Mosaic owners in these villages, resulting from marriages in the neighborhood and the effect of diffusion in a variety of bonds, land transactions (sale, pledge), is a typical image of the noble settlements in most villages in Sieradz.
JAROSŁAW KITA, MODEL LAND PROPERTIES IN KINGDOM OF POLAND OF 40TH AND 50TH YEARS OF 19TH CENTURY
In the mid-nineteenth century landowners in Polish Kingdom were deprived of possibility of political activity and were reluctant to any conspiracies. Some of the landowners decided to take steps to modernize their estates. The most often, they used the patterns of Western European agriculture. To promote the modern agriculture in the papers they published a descriptions of exemplary estates. In the existence of Agricultural Society the model estates were rewarded, and their onwers were posed as a model to copy.
ILONA FLORCZAK, ARCHIVAL MATERIALS ABOUT SOSNOWIEC BETWEEN 1867–1918 IN STATE ARCHIVE IN LODZ
This article is based on records, which are part of archival holdings State Archive in Lodz. It shows what kind of archival resources about Sosnowiec relate to 1867–1918 can be found there. It is also about why and in what ways these documents were found in Lodz – it was connected which territorial membership of villages, from which Sosnowiec was created in 1902. This archival documents mainly were made by Russian administrative authorities in Piotrków province. These archive records are data source for many research problems – for example: migration, political and social problems, habitant living conditions, and many more. Main aim of this text is to help scientists find information where to find interesting to them records.
WŁODZIMIERZ KOZŁOWSKI, THE COMMANDERS OF THE 31TH RIFLEMEN OF KANIÓW REGIMENT (ŁÓDŹ, SINCE 1935 ALSO IN SIERADZ) 1918–1939. THE ATTEMPT OF CHARACTERISTICS, PART ONE 1918–1928
During the first decade of the independence of Poland (regained in November of 1918) the 31th Riflemen of Kaniów Regiment (as a part of the 10th Infantry Division with headquartes in Łódź) was commanded by 11 officers: Col. Stefan Borowski, Lt Col. Wojciech Gromczyński, Maj. Albin Skroczyński, Maj. Stanisław Sobieszczak, Lt Col. Wiktor Łapicki, Capt./Maj. Mikołaj Bołtuć, Capt. Mieczysław Brodziński, Lt Col. Marian Steczkowski, Maj./Lt Col. Leon Gotkiewicz, Col. Wacław Szokalski i Lt. Col./Col. Alfred Vogel. The following persons: S. Borowski, S. Sobieszczak, W. Łapicki i M. Brodziński commanded the regiment for the shortest time (about 1–2,5 month). It took place in the period 1918–1921 with the extreme rotation during the military operations. As it was made to known, A. Vogel commanded the regiment for the longest period (3 years).
KRZYSZTOF LESIAKOWSKI, KALISZ CITIZENS – VICTIMS OF ZGIERZ CRIME FROM THE 20TH MARCH 1942
One of the most horrible Nazi crimes occupied Poland was the public execution of 100 Polish citizens in Zgierz. They were executed on 20th March 1942 in front of thousands of Polish witnesses. This way the Nazis retaliated for executing two Gestapo officers by the member of Polish conspiracy in this town. Among the executed there were mostly Lodz citizens, but the other group came from Kalisz and surrounding places. There were at least 25 people. It means that every fourth person shot came from Kalisz district, e.g. second lieutenant Edward Laskowski – the deputy of the commander of Union of Armed Struggle (ZWZ) in Kalisz, sergeant major Aleksander Misiewicz – the prewar professional NCO in Kalisz in 29 regiment, at this house the first underground meeting of the regiment personnel took place; Kazimierz Siwiński – a doctor, involved in underground activity in ZWZ; the priest Stanisław Zaborowicz – a prefect in local cathedral parish, related to national conspiracy; three scouts from Kalisz (Jerzy Ast, Edward Góźdź, Zenon Kurasiński) who stole the banner of their squad sealed by the Nazi.
BOHDAN PIĘTKA, MEMBERS OF THE LOCAL POLISH UNDERGROUND ORGANIZATIONS OF THE REICHSGAU WARTHELAND AND THE REICHSGAU DANZIG-WESTPREUSSEN IN KL AUSCHWITZ
The article discusses the repressive actions of the German occupants against Polish local underground organizations in the Reichsgau Wartheland and the Reichsgau Danzig-Westpreußen. One of the forms of repression were deportation to concentration camps, including KL Auschwitz. Among active military underground organizations in the Reichsgau Wartheland and the Reichsgau Danzig-Westpreußen, other than the Home Army (AK), Peasants’ Battalions (BCh) and National Armed Forces (NSZ), were deported to KL Auschwitz members of organizations such as: Polska Organizacja Bojowa „Wolność” (Polish Fighting Organization „Freedom”), Polska Siła Zbrojna (Polish Armed Force), Polska Organizacja Walki Niepodległościowej (Polish National Independence Struggle), Polska Organizacja Wojskowa (Polish Military Organization) and the „Promieniści” – operating in Łódź, Polska Organizacja Wojskowa „Wolność” (the Polish Military Organization „Freedom”) and the organization „Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła” („Poland has not yet perished”) in Poznań, Tajna Organizacja Wojskowa (Secret Military Organization) of Ostrów Wielkopolski district, the organization „Młoda Wieś” („Young Country”) of the village Mirosławice, Scout organization from Kościan, the organization „Orzeł Biały” („White Eagle”) of Grudziądz, Polska Organizacja Zbrojna „Znak” (the Polish Armed Organization „Znak”) and Polska Organizacja Ziem Zachodnich (the Military Organization of the Western Lands) – with a regional scope. The analysis showed that KL Auschwitz was instrumental in the isolation and extermination of the Polish underground soldiers in the territories annexed to the Reich also to members of the smaller, and sometimes little-known underground structures.
WITOLD JARNO, THE COMMAND OF THE MILITARY DISTRICT NO. VI LODZ ON THE PEACEFUL ORGANIZATION IN THE YEARS 1945–1946
The article presents the organizational development of the command of the Military District No. VI in Lodz after ending the Second World War and passing the armed forces at the peaceful organization. During the war competences of regional commands were limited and they concentrated on issues connected with conscription and supplementing lighting units. This situation was changed in August 1945, when it was taken fundamental reorganization of the Polish Army. Then it, in the connection with transition at the peaceful organization and enlargement of number of Military Districts to seven – structures of commands of those districts were reorganized. As a result of these operations, Military Districts stood themselves true territorial commands equipped with full of military power. It began new peaceful period in their history. Since August 1945 the Military District No. VI was one from seven Military Districts which existed in Poland in the first postwar period. This district existed very shortly, because it was already dissolved in November 1946.
ZDZISŁAW WŁODARCZYK, THE PRUSSIAN MILITARY PRESENCE IN PIOTRKOW (1793–1806)
In early 1793 after the occupation of provinces of Wielkopolska by Prussia, Piotrkow (so far in the province of Sieradz) found within South Prussia (Südpreussen). Living conditions changed diametrically in this territory. One element of new reality was visible military presence in the socio-economic area of the province. Coexistence with the Prussian military men, who often came with their families, constituted a new element of reality. There was a complicated relationship network developing between local residents and soldiers. The fact that the army gave the opportunity to increase revenue, even through provision of services for the benefit turned to advantage. All of this related to Piotrkow as well – one of the biggest cities of the province, which was the residence of the major branches of the Prussian army. Oswald’s battalion stayed in the town until 1806. The soldiers created there their infrastructure required for the normal functions of the military unit. The defeat of Prussia in the war with Napoleonic France ended this interesting fragment of the history of the city.
ANNA GAWRYSZCZAK, NAMES AND SURNAMES OF POLISH JEWES IN 19TH CENTURY
The Jewish are very big and very important population in Lodz, and because of that it`s really important to find out about their`s names and surnames, where they accually come from based on the regions. The issue in general is known by everybody. We All know that both names and surnames, have Got their meanings, that „names” alloud us to find out identity of every person.
AGNIESZKA JANIK, THE REGISTERS OF POPULATION FROM THE 19TH AND THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURIES PRESERVED IN THE STATE ARCHIVE IN LODZ
On the basis of the archival materials preserved in the State Archive in Lodz, the article presents the population’s register system which was functioning during the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries.
ALEKSY PIASTA, THE ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITY OF GYMNASTIC SOCIETY „SOKÓŁ” IN PIOTRKÓW TRYBUNALSKI BETWEEN 1905–1918
One of the Polish organizations that aim revival and preservation of Polish culture was Gymnastic Society „Sokół”. The first „nest” of this organization was founded February 7, 1867 in Lwów. The first branch of the association in the Polish Kingdom, founded in Warsaw, in November 1905. At the same time, in the headquarters of the Society of Cyclists, came to the first meeting of the members of “Nest Piotrków”. Over the next few months created structures in the province Piotrków, primarily in Zagłębie Dąbrowskie. Booming movement was legalized May 30, 1906. “Sokól” was banned in October 1906 and has since acted in conspiracy. During the First World War, the association was dominated by activists of the national democratic orientation. In November 1918, members of “Sokół” took part in disarming the austrian troops in Piotrków.
ALEKSANDRA A. KOZŁOWSKA, THE SYMBOLS OF THE SOLDIERS HONOUR. THE FLAGS OF THE 28TH KANIÓW REGIMENT (ŁÓDŹ) 1918–1939
In November 1918 Poland regained her independence. After 123 years of slavery the new country had to unify the structure of the military units and the military symbolization. One of the most important elements was the new pattern of standard.
MARCIN MATUSIAK, INTERVENTIONS OF ŁÓDŹ DISTRICT AUTORITIES TO APPOINT EXPERIMENTAL FARM AND AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL IN CZARNOCIN (1919–1924)
The article takes an attempt to demonstrate the background of establishing this, as it later turned out, one of the leading initiatives of this kind in Poland. This initiative was even more valuable owning to the fact that it was born at the beginning of independence of the Polish state and its was realized almost exclusively with the use of the powers of Lodz district local authorities. In the launching of the experimental farm and building of the agricultural school in Czarnocin, especially important role was played by the contemporary parliamentarian and activist of peasants’ movement Juliusz Poniatowski, who until the completion of the school was acting as the manager of the farm.
ARKADIUSZ RZEPKOWSKI, THE WOMEN IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE SEX OF THE POPULATION OF LODZ VOIVODESHIP IN THE LIGHT OF THE FIRST GENERAL CENSUS
Studies on structure of infants’ age have shown that in every larger population there have been born more boys than girls. However women’s lower death-rate has caused as a consequence a growth in a number
of women in the whole studied population. In XX century wars also made a great influence on that situation. They caused a selective character of migration as well as they led to perishing of men as their
main participants. In European countries it has happened rarely that number of men has been smaller than number of women. Only in Ireland and Bulgaria such situation appeared in a certain period of time.
MAŁGORZATA KONIARSKA, THE CZECHOSLOVAKIA-GERMANY CONFLICT OF 1938 ON PAGES OF „WARSZAWSKI DZIENNIK NARODOWY” („WARSAW NATIONAL JOURNAL”)
The article presents the events of the conflict between Czechoslovakia and Germany, also known as the Sudeten Crisis, lasting since March till the end of September 1938, and concerning the claims laid by the Third Reich to the border areas of the I Republic – the Sudetes, as related by the leading newspaper of the National Party – the National Daily Newspaper of Warsaw, issued during the time of the Second Polish Republic. It includes a brief historical outline of the Sudeten Crisis as well as a character sketch of the most important right-wing political group and its main body. The significance of the issues determining the year 1938 arose from disturbing the balance of power in Europe, leading inevitably to the global conflict.
KSAWERY JASIAK, ZDZISŁAW BALCERZAK PS. „VIKTOR” – THE PARTISAN OF CHOICE
In my thesis I presented the fate of historical events Zdzislaw Balcerzak – anti-communist rebel soldier called Conspirational Polish Army (KWP). He was born on March 5, 1929 in Smardzew district Sieradz.
JERZY WOJNIŁOWICZ, SCIENTIFIC AND POPULARIZING ACHIEVEMENTS OF WŁODZIMIERZ RUDŹ
Article presented, scientific and popularizing achievements of Włodzimierz Rudź, the creator and longtime director of State Archive in Tomaszów Mazowiecki, and very richly deserved social activist for this town. The author of the article has provided the works of W. Rudź, both of history and science of archives, paying attention to their source values and cognitive. Also drew attention on their large chronological span (18–20th Century) and diversity issues.
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