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Oddział Łódzki PTH

Zarząd Główny PTH

Instytut Historii UŁ

Przegląd Nauk Historycznych

Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia historica


ROCZNIK ŁÓDZKI
TOM 59, 2012


SUMMARY

   ALICJA SZYMCZAKOWA, GENEALOGY DETAILS FROM SIERADZ PROVINCE OF FIFTEEN CENTURY

   The article discusses the settlement in 4 villages: Jerwonice, Kłoniszew and Piorunówek in the parish Małyń and Wrońsko in the parish Brzyków. The aim was to determine the membership of ancestral owners. Literature attributes them the herb Poraj (Stanislaw Kozierowski). Analysis of the genealogical relationships and contacts legal (court testimony, warrant, agreement) describes a picture of wide circles of family and neighbors. Maze of different links, frequent change of ownership of the not very wealthy nobles, produce difficulties in identifying people, and thus complications in determining their clan affiliation. Nierwańscy of Jerwonic Poraj could be, but they also had ties to the native Jastrzębiec. In Kłoniszew only one of the families belonged to Poraj, and besides, were Rawicz, Taczała and others. In Piorunówek one group of owners can be linked to Poraj. Were also co-owners of Godzięba (Kiccy) and the nobility of an unidentified ancestral affiliation. Wrońsko village inhabited mostly Poraj, as evidenced by names characteristic of this family and transactions with Poraj from Witów. Next to them were representatives of the families of Sulima and probably of Laska. Mosaic owners in these villages, resulting from marriages in the neighborhood and the effect of diffusion in a variety of bonds, land transactions (sale, pledge), is a typical image of the noble settlements in most villages in Sieradz.

   JAROSŁAW KITA, MODEL LAND PROPERTIES IN KINGDOM OF POLAND OF 40TH AND 50TH YEARS OF 19TH CENTURY

   In the mid-nineteenth century landowners in Polish Kingdom were deprived of possibility of political activity and were reluctant to any conspiracies. Some of the landowners decided to take steps to modernize their estates. The most often, they used the patterns of Western European agriculture. To promote the modern agriculture in the papers they published a descriptions of exemplary estates. In the existence of Agricultural Society the model estates were rewarded, and their onwers were posed as a model to copy.

   ILONA FLORCZAK, ARCHIVAL MATERIALS ABOUT SOSNOWIEC BETWEEN 1867–1918 IN STATE ARCHIVE IN LODZ

   This article is based on records, which are part of archival holdings State Archive in Lodz. It shows what kind of archival resources about Sosnowiec relate to 1867–1918 can be found there. It is also about why and in what ways these documents were found in Lodz – it was connected which territorial membership of villages, from which Sosnowiec was created in 1902. This archival documents mainly were made by Russian administrative authorities in Piotrków province. These archive records are data source for many research problems – for example: migration, political and social problems, habitant living conditions, and many more. Main aim of this text is to help scientists find information where to find interesting to them records.

   WŁODZIMIERZ KOZŁOWSKI, THE COMMANDERS OF THE 31TH RIFLEMEN OF KANIÓW REGIMENT (ŁÓDŹ, SINCE 1935 ALSO IN SIERADZ) 1918–1939. THE ATTEMPT OF CHARACTERISTICS, PART ONE 1918–1928

   During the first decade of the independence of Poland (regained in November of 1918) the 31th Riflemen of Kaniów Regiment (as a part of the 10th Infantry Division with headquartes in Łódź) was commanded by 11 officers: Col. Stefan Borowski, Lt Col. Wojciech Gromczyński, Maj. Albin Skroczyński, Maj. Stanisław Sobieszczak, Lt Col. Wiktor Łapicki, Capt./Maj. Mikołaj Bołtuć, Capt. Mieczysław Brodziński, Lt Col. Marian Steczkowski, Maj./Lt Col. Leon Gotkiewicz, Col. Wacław Szokalski i Lt. Col./Col. Alfred Vogel. The following persons: S. Borowski, S. Sobieszczak, W. Łapicki i M. Brodziński commanded the regiment for the shortest time (about 1–2,5 month). It took place in the period 1918–1921 with the extreme rotation during the military operations. As it was made to known, A. Vogel commanded the regiment for the longest period (3 years).
   All of the commanders of the 31th Riflemen of Kaniów Regiment influenced this troop and they had their part in establishment of its war glory. Many of them was honored with the outstanding military decorations. As indicated, the others based – each of them to the best of their ability – the training and the battle value of the regiment which was so much connected with Łódź till the beginning of the WW II.

   KRZYSZTOF LESIAKOWSKI, KALISZ CITIZENS – VICTIMS OF ZGIERZ CRIME FROM THE 20TH MARCH 1942

   One of the most horrible Nazi crimes occupied Poland was the public execution of 100 Polish citizens in Zgierz. They were executed on 20th March 1942 in front of thousands of Polish witnesses. This way the Nazis retaliated for executing two Gestapo officers by the member of Polish conspiracy in this town. Among the executed there were mostly Lodz citizens, but the other group came from Kalisz and surrounding places. There were at least 25 people. It means that every fourth person shot came from Kalisz district, e.g. second lieutenant Edward Laskowski – the deputy of the commander of Union of Armed Struggle (ZWZ) in Kalisz, sergeant major Aleksander Misiewicz – the prewar professional NCO in Kalisz in 29 regiment, at this house the first underground meeting of the regiment personnel took place; Kazimierz Siwiński – a doctor, involved in underground activity in ZWZ; the priest Stanisław Zaborowicz – a prefect in local cathedral parish, related to national conspiracy; three scouts from Kalisz (Jerzy Ast, Edward Góźdź, Zenon Kurasiński) who stole the banner of their squad sealed by the Nazi.
   The Kalisz list of the executed proves that German occupants did not act blindly but the people that lost their lives were carefully chosen.
   They first hit the intelligence, former military officers and scouts, who were the basis of Polish underground.

   BOHDAN PIĘTKA, MEMBERS OF THE LOCAL POLISH UNDERGROUND ORGANIZATIONS OF THE REICHSGAU WARTHELAND AND THE REICHSGAU DANZIG-WESTPREUSSEN IN KL AUSCHWITZ

   The article discusses the repressive actions of the German occupants against Polish local underground organizations in the Reichsgau Wartheland and the Reichsgau Danzig-Westpreußen. One of the forms of repression were deportation to concentration camps, including KL Auschwitz. Among active military underground organizations in the Reichsgau Wartheland and the Reichsgau Danzig-Westpreußen, other than the Home Army (AK), Peasants’ Battalions (BCh) and National Armed Forces (NSZ), were deported to KL Auschwitz members of organizations such as: Polska Organizacja Bojowa „Wolność” (Polish Fighting Organization „Freedom”), Polska Siła Zbrojna (Polish Armed Force), Polska Organizacja Walki Niepodległościowej (Polish National Independence Struggle), Polska Organizacja Wojskowa (Polish Military Organization) and the „Promieniści” – operating in Łódź, Polska Organizacja Wojskowa „Wolność” (the Polish Military Organization „Freedom”) and the organization „Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła” („Poland has not yet perished”) in Poznań, Tajna Organizacja Wojskowa (Secret Military Organization) of Ostrów Wielkopolski district, the organization „Młoda Wieś” („Young Country”) of the village Mirosławice, Scout organization from Kościan, the organization „Orzeł Biały” („White Eagle”) of Grudziądz, Polska Organizacja Zbrojna „Znak” (the Polish Armed Organization „Znak”) and Polska Organizacja Ziem Zachodnich (the Military Organization of the Western Lands) – with a regional scope. The analysis showed that KL Auschwitz was instrumental in the isolation and extermination of the Polish underground soldiers in the territories annexed to the Reich also to members of the smaller, and sometimes little-known underground structures.

   WITOLD JARNO, THE COMMAND OF THE MILITARY DISTRICT NO. VI LODZ ON THE PEACEFUL ORGANIZATION IN THE YEARS 1945–1946

   The article presents the organizational development of the command of the Military District No. VI in Lodz after ending the Second World War and passing the armed forces at the peaceful organization. During the war competences of regional commands were limited and they concentrated on issues connected with conscription and supplementing lighting units. This situation was changed in August 1945, when it was taken fundamental reorganization of the Polish Army. Then it, in the connection with transition at the peaceful organization and enlargement of number of Military Districts to seven – structures of commands of those districts were reorganized. As a result of these operations, Military Districts stood themselves true territorial commands equipped with full of military power. It began new peaceful period in their history. Since August 1945 the Military District No. VI was one from seven Military Districts which existed in Poland in the first postwar period. This district existed very shortly, because it was already dissolved in November 1946.
   In the command of the Military District No. VI in this period dominated officers of the Red Army, which filled the majority of higher commanders’ positions. The structures of the command of this district were extended gradually, through creating next organizational units. After the liquidation of that district, the Lodz stopped to be the seat of the military territorial powers of the regional rung, what it lowered significantly the rank of this city in the structure of the Polish Army.

   ZDZISŁAW WŁODARCZYK, THE PRUSSIAN MILITARY PRESENCE IN PIOTRKOW (1793–1806)

   In early 1793 after the occupation of provinces of Wielkopolska by Prussia, Piotrkow (so far in the province of Sieradz) found within South Prussia (Südpreussen). Living conditions changed diametrically in this territory. One element of new reality was visible military presence in the socio-economic area of the province. Coexistence with the Prussian military men, who often came with their families, constituted a new element of reality. There was a complicated relationship network developing between local residents and soldiers. The fact that the army gave the opportunity to increase revenue, even through provision of services for the benefit turned to advantage. All of this related to Piotrkow as well – one of the biggest cities of the province, which was the residence of the major branches of the Prussian army. Oswald’s battalion stayed in the town until 1806. The soldiers created there their infrastructure required for the normal functions of the military unit. The defeat of Prussia in the war with Napoleonic France ended this interesting fragment of the history of the city.

   ANNA GAWRYSZCZAK, NAMES AND SURNAMES OF POLISH JEWES IN 19TH CENTURY

   The Jewish are very big and very important population in Lodz, and because of that it`s really important to find out about their`s names and surnames, where they accually come from based on the regions. The issue in general is known by everybody. We All know that both names and surnames, have Got their meanings, that „names” alloud us to find out identity of every person.
   Names and surnames are one of the most interesting problems about history of polish Jewes. The main assignment of this article is to find out the background of Jewish names and surnames in Lodz at XIX and XX century. The article will try to show the Genesis of names and derivation forms based on the plases where the Jewish were living. That problem is very important, because names where main base of making out the surnames used by Jewish who lived in Lodz.
   It will prezent how big part in Jewish community was name, that naming somebody was very important to Jewish tradition. This article i salso about making names polish sounds and making them sorter. It`s also about importance names and m king surnames out of them, that where used by Jewish. As it was with the names it`s gonna show Genesis of surnames used by Jewes, resons why they changed and making out completly different and new forms. Part of the article is about assuming a names by Jewish.

   AGNIESZKA JANIK, THE REGISTERS OF POPULATION FROM THE 19TH AND THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURIES PRESERVED IN THE STATE ARCHIVE IN LODZ

   On the basis of the archival materials preserved in the State Archive in Lodz, the article presents the population’s register system which was functioning during the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries.
   It includes: the registration books of permanent and temporary inhabitants, census, population’s roll and the books of population’s movement.
   The registration books of permanent and temporary inhabitants, created after introducing the Napoleonic Code, were the oldest form of the registers and continued for the longest time. They were kept until 1931 when they were replaced by the homogeneous system of the population’s register, which was introduced in the whole area of the independent Republic of Poland. As a result, there were created the population’s roll and the books of population’s movement, which were being kept until to the outbreak of World War II.
   The last kind of the registers of population presented in the articles is the Census of the citizens of Lodz from 1916–1921. It was created as a result of connecting the remains of three separate censuses of the city population from 1916, 1919 and 1921.

   ALEKSY PIASTA, THE ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITY OF GYMNASTIC SOCIETY „SOKÓŁ” IN PIOTRKÓW TRYBUNALSKI BETWEEN 1905–1918

   One of the Polish organizations that aim revival and preservation of Polish culture was Gymnastic Society „Sokół”. The first „nest” of this organization was founded February 7, 1867 in Lwów. The first branch of the association in the Polish Kingdom, founded in Warsaw, in November 1905. At the same time, in the headquarters of the Society of Cyclists, came to the first meeting of the members of “Nest Piotrków”. Over the next few months created structures in the province Piotrków, primarily in Zagłębie Dąbrowskie. Booming movement was legalized May 30, 1906. “Sokól” was banned in October 1906 and has since acted in conspiracy. During the First World War, the association was dominated by activists of the national democratic orientation. In November 1918, members of “Sokół” took part in disarming the austrian troops in Piotrków.

   ALEKSANDRA A. KOZŁOWSKA, THE SYMBOLS OF THE SOLDIERS HONOUR. THE FLAGS OF THE 28TH KANIÓW REGIMENT (ŁÓDŹ) 1918–1939

   In November 1918 Poland regained her independence. After 123 years of slavery the new country had to unify the structure of the military units and the military symbolization. One of the most important elements was the new pattern of standard.
   The standards have been used on the Polish lands since the 11th century. They were unified in the 18th century. During the WW 1 most the Polish military units had their own standards. They were different from one another. The turning point was the act of the 1st August 1919 regarding the national emblems and colours. It qualified the new patterns of the Polish military standards.
   In the period 1918–1939 Łódź was the place of location of 2 infantry regiments: the 28th and the 31st. The first of them came into existence in 1918 and was called the Regiment of Children of Łódź. Then it was named the 28th Kaniów Rifle Regiment. It received its first standard on the 25th May 1919. The Holy Mother of Częstochowa was embroidered on one side and the eagle inside of the laurel wreath on the other side. In 1930 this standard was passed to the Museum of the Polish Army in Warsaw. On the 15th May 1927 the 28th Kaniów Rifle Regiment received the new standard which was made according to the pattern from the act of 1919. The standard was presented by president of Poland Ignacy Mościcki to colonel Stanisław Oziewicz, who commanded the regiment at that time. On the one side of the standard the Knight’s Cross and the numbers ”28” were embroidered. On the other side the inscription Honour And Motherland was put into the laurel wreath and the names of the places were the regiment fought during the Polish-Soviet War were embroidered. After the outbreak of the WW 2 in September 1939 the standard of the 28th Kaniów Rifle Regiment was hidden. It survived the period of the war. In March of 1945 it was passed to the unit of the Polish Army stationed in Łódź and unfortunately got lost. Its further lot is unknown.

   MARCIN MATUSIAK, INTERVENTIONS OF ŁÓDŹ DISTRICT AUTORITIES TO APPOINT EXPERIMENTAL FARM AND AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL IN CZARNOCIN (1919–1924)

   The article takes an attempt to demonstrate the background of establishing this, as it later turned out, one of the leading initiatives of this kind in Poland. This initiative was even more valuable owning to the fact that it was born at the beginning of independence of the Polish state and its was realized almost exclusively with the use of the powers of Lodz district local authorities. In the launching of the experimental farm and building of the agricultural school in Czarnocin, especially important role was played by the contemporary parliamentarian and activist of peasants’ movement Juliusz Poniatowski, who until the completion of the school was acting as the manager of the farm.

   ARKADIUSZ RZEPKOWSKI, THE WOMEN IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE SEX OF THE POPULATION OF LODZ VOIVODESHIP IN THE LIGHT OF THE FIRST GENERAL CENSUS

   Studies on structure of infants’ age have shown that in every larger population there have been born more boys than girls. However women’s lower death-rate has caused as a consequence a growth in a number of women in the whole studied population. In XX century wars also made a great influence on that situation. They caused a selective character of migration as well as they led to perishing of men as their main participants. In European countries it has happened rarely that number of men has been smaller than number of women. Only in Ireland and Bulgaria such situation appeared in a certain period of time.
   In 1921 in the Łódź province there was a clear superiority in the number of women comparing to men in the sex structure of the population. It must have been both the demographic result of World War I as well as social and economic character of the Łódź province. The total number of population in the Łódź province at that time was 2 252 769 people i.e. 1 182 345 women (52.48%) and 1 070 424 men (47.52%). The man /woman ratio was 100/110.5. In cities where 838 844 people lived, there were even more women than men. There were 455 143 women (54.26%) and 383 701 men (45.74%) there. Relating to municipal population the men/women ratio was 100/118.6. In the country there was a less difference between number of women and men. There were 1 413 925 inhabitants in total: 727 202 women (51.43%) and 686 723 men (48.57%). The men/women ratio was 100/106.0 there.

   MAŁGORZATA KONIARSKA, THE CZECHOSLOVAKIA-GERMANY CONFLICT OF 1938 ON PAGES OF „WARSZAWSKI DZIENNIK NARODOWY” („WARSAW NATIONAL JOURNAL”)

   The article presents the events of the conflict between Czechoslovakia and Germany, also known as the Sudeten Crisis, lasting since March till the end of September 1938, and concerning the claims laid by the Third Reich to the border areas of the I Republic – the Sudetes, as related by the leading newspaper of the National Party – the National Daily Newspaper of Warsaw, issued during the time of the Second Polish Republic. It includes a brief historical outline of the Sudeten Crisis as well as a character sketch of the most important right-wing political group and its main body. The significance of the issues determining the year 1938 arose from disturbing the balance of power in Europe, leading inevitably to the global conflict.

   KSAWERY JASIAK, ZDZISŁAW BALCERZAK PS. „VIKTOR” – THE PARTISAN OF CHOICE

   In my thesis I presented the fate of historical events Zdzislaw Balcerzak – anti-communist rebel soldier called Conspirational Polish Army (KWP). He was born on March 5, 1929 in Smardzew district Sieradz.
   The family Z. Balcerzak was continued steadfastly in their patriotic attitudes. That is why teenage Zdzislaw was find examples of sacrifice for the Homeland (Independent Poland). He was convinced, that only such an attitude could be the guarantor of its independence, the spirit of the polish people and the polish sovereignty. He was not only a witness to the tragic events but also a participant in the recovery of independence. Despite the heroic attitude in this fight also bear defeat.
   After 1946 he gave hospitality for refuge underground soldiers of the anti-communist Polish Underground Army – KWP, which included, among others Czeslaw, Tadeusz and Antoni Bartolik – they are his mother’s brother. As one of the many sought asylum from repressive apparatus pursuers by hiding in the forest area of the underground facilities. Sieradz, Kalisz and Wrocław. Experienced a personal tragedy forces during the fighting with the communist security forces. Pledged repeatedly resorted to ambushes by the communist security forces, at the same time addressing serious wounds. He was the only one of the youngest of the inner circle partisans see lieutenant Kazimierz Skalski ps. „Firewall” – KWP partisan commander crypts. “Drzymala II”, who survived the massive communist repression after 1956, lived to see the end of the political changes in 1990, the rehabilitation of the judgment of the stalinist period and the establishment in 2011 by the state Memorial of Accursed Soldiers.

   JERZY WOJNIŁOWICZ, SCIENTIFIC AND POPULARIZING ACHIEVEMENTS OF WŁODZIMIERZ RUDŹ

   Article presented, scientific and popularizing achievements of Włodzimierz Rudź, the creator and longtime director of State Archive in Tomaszów Mazowiecki, and very richly deserved social activist for this town. The author of the article has provided the works of W. Rudź, both of history and science of archives, paying attention to their source values and cognitive. Also drew attention on their large chronological span (18–20th Century) and diversity issues.


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