Professor Stanisław Marian Zajączkowski. The Honorary Member of Polish Historical Society On the occasion of his 80th birthday and 55th anniversary of the academic career (Jan Szymczak)
Stanisław Marian Zajączkowski was born on 7 July 1931 in Lvov (today: Lviv in Ukraine) as a son of Maria née Kramer and Stanisław Franciszek Zajączkowski, Professor of history at the University of Stephen Batory in Vilnius (Lithuania today). After WW2 he settled down in Łódź, where, following his father’s interests, he studied history in 1950-1955. A year later he became an assistant in the Institute of History at the University of Łódź, where he pursued his academic career. In 1990 he was awarded the title of Professor. In 2001 he retired but remained an active participant of the academic life.
Marzena Iwańska, The daily life of the intelligentsia of Lodz in the 19th and 20th centuries. Some pictures
Selected issues concerning daily life of the Lodz intelligentsia (white collar class) in the 2nd half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century are examined in this article. According to analyzed sources conditions of work and difficulties of professional life appear as the most important problems. The political and social terms under the Russian power were unfavourable for the intelligentsia. The daily life of that class was connected with opressial political system. Members of intelligentsia usually faced many dillemmas if they tried to secure good economic and cultural conditions for themselves and for their families.
Włodzimierz Berner, Professional, social and scientific activity of Łódź dermatologists and venereologists at the time of the Second Republic of Poland
At the time of the Second Republic of Poland in the city of Łódź, dermatologists and venereologists played an important role in rendering medical services to the city population. At the turn of the years 1918 and 1919, there were 18 specialists in this field, in 1925 – 35, and in 1938 – 43. Doctors treating cutaneous and venereal diseases were employed in the municipal (self-governmental), insurance, state, social (charitable), and private health service institutions working in hospitals (specialist, general) and existing ambulatories, independent one- and multi-specialty outpatient departments (also of a cooperative character) and private clinics. The doctors shared their professional knowledge and experience with other colleagues at the scientific and informative meetings of the Łódź Division of the Polish Dermatological Society and the Łódź Medical Society. They demonstrated there interesting clinical cases of diseases (frequently with patients’ participation) and delivered lectures, many of which were published not only in Polish but also in French, German, and Swedish periodicals. The dermatologists and venereologists of the city of Łódź also participated in Polish and foreign dermatological conferences. Such doctors as Emanuel Sonnenberg, Samuel Nuemark, Jakub Leyberg, Adam Grosglik and Abram Kryński belonged to the most outstanding dermatolo-gists of those times with the greatest scientific achievements. Dr Feliks Skusiewicz should be also mentioned among those remarkable medical professionals, because he distinguished himself as an excellent educator giving popular talks and lectures on health subjects to inhabitants of the city.
Małgorzata Przeniosło, Habilitations in the Second Republic of Poland (on the examples of mathematicians)
In Poland between the Wars a habilitation was the procedure for receiving the law for giving lectures in the academic high school. The law was conferred by committees of faculties of such schools and confirmed by the Minister of Education. A candidate for a habilitation had to have a doctor’s degree and one published paper. This dissertation was evaluated by two reviewers. Another publications were not required but they could be taken into consideration by reviewers. Usually, the candidates had a few articles. The most clever young persons working in the academic high school had more than twenty publications, for example among mathematicians Karol Borsuk at the University of Warsaw, Władysław Orlicz (University of Lvov) and Józef Marcinkiewicz (University of Vilnius).
Maria Nartonowicz-Kot, The Revolution 1905 in the Tradition of the Polish Socialist Movement of the Second Republic of Poland
The events of the revolution of 1905 constituted an important phenomena for polish socialists during the interwar-time, frequently used by them to create the identity and autonomy of the socialist movement. An important role in this process played the Association of Former Political Prisoners, created in 1919, which covered with its influence the whole country. The association mentioned above was personally and ideologically strongly related to the Polish Socialist Party. Its main activities were: fighting for improvement of material being of former political prisoners, helping them to find an employment, cultivating the memory of revolution´s heroes and looking after the execution places of fighters for independence and socialist ideology.
Jarosław Jastrzębski, Organization of the Chamber of Crafts in Łódź in the years 1927-1939
This article aims to present the most relevant facts concerning the organization of the Chamber of Crafts in Łódź in the interwar period and the direction of its evolution. Chronological range is limited on the one hand the creation date of the Chamber and the entry into force of a uniform law for the whole Polish industry in 1927 and, second, the outbreak of war in 1939. Work is essentially the source and is based on an analysis of state laws from the years
1927-1939. The article is divided into twelve chapters.
Włodzimierz Kozłowski, The commanders of the 30th Riflemen of Kaniów Regiment (Warsaw; the 2nd Battalion in Tomaszów Mazowiecki until november 1924) 1918-1939. The attempt of characterization. Part II, 1936-1939
In November 1918 Poland regained her independence after 123 years of slavery. During the years 1918-1921 the fights for new Polish borders took place. In the period 1921-1939 the state was divided into 10 Military Districts with IV Military District (Łódź) among them. Three infantry divisions were located in this region. One of them was the 10th Infantry Division with headquartes in Łódź.
Krzysztof Lesiakowski, Share of structures of „Solidarnosc” in Lodz in all-Polish Trade Union activity
Structures of “Solidarnosc” in Lodz had a great influence on many areas of functioning of whole Trade Union. In this point it’s worth to say about development of branches structures, breakout line of government resistance if it comes to creation units of Trade Union among civil workers of Ministry of the Interior, or support for students demanding their own, self-sustaining organization. Local structures of Trade Union also had an ambition to affect on conception of schedule whole Trade Union. This aspirations had born fruit in the form of two large conferences concerning this problem (December 1980, July 1981). Members of this community opted for changes in system of government, deep economic reforms which would be connected with self-reliance of enterprises and local government extension. Estimating that local governments would start their work a few months after creation, Lodz no longer than in half of 1981 opted for active strike, which main task was organisation of production and distribution articles under control of strike committee. This conceptions weren’t forced only in Lodz, but structures of “Solidarnosc” in region of Lodz had a great influence on them. All in all that circumstances and growing dislike for Walesa and his advisers effected that on the last months of 1981, structures of “Solidarnosc” in Lodz were one of the most radical in Poland.
Leszek Olejnik, Region of Lodz society towards the martial law
Article shows attitudes of society of Lodz Region to martial law. Martial law surprised the whole polish society. In the night from 12th to 13th December 1981 officers of Citizens' Militia and Security Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs started the action of internment of eminent oppositionists and activists from Independent Self-governing Trade Union "Solidarity". Many different restrictions of public life were introduced e.g. the activity of trade unions was suspended. Response to events was mainly resistance, but also many people have adapted to new conditions enforced by government.
Krzysztof Tomasz Witczak, Letters from the Ghetto of Tomaszów Mazowiecki as a historical source documenting the Jewish artistic life during the Nazi occupation
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington keeps 100 letters from the Ghetto of Tomaszów Mazowiecki written by Israel Aliuhe (“Lutek”) Orenbach (1919-1942) to his beloved Edith Blau. These largely unknown letters constitute an interesting artefact which documents not only the author’s emotional and psychological state of the author, but also numerous aspects of everyday life of Jewish inhabitants of Tomaszów Mazowiecki
(from 1939 until 1941). Lutek Orenbach was a clerk of the Jewish community in the Tomaszów Ghetto and was well acquainted with common problems of the Jews of his time. He was also an artist, who created a number of caricatures of his relatives, friends and eminent persons of the Tomaszów Ghetto. Among Lutek’s friends there were Henoch (Henryk) Barczyński (1896-1941), Wolf (Władysław) Rejder and other Jewish painters. In 1940 Orenbach co-created a theatre (“Klein Kunsttheater”) in the Tomaszów Ghetto. Despite of the fact that in his letters to Edith Lutek
Orenbach avoided drastic and pessimistic narrative elements, his psycho-physical sufferings emerge in numerous phrases. The texts give an extensive description of his family and friends, as well as that of Jews’ everyday life under the Nazi occupation.
Łukasz Orzechowski, Lodz Society of Friends of Lviv and the South-East Borderlands between 1989-2009
The article is devoted lodz division of Polish the non-governmental organisation – Towarzystwo Miłośników Lwowa i Kresów Południowo Wschodnich (the Association of Friends of Lviv and the South Eastern Borderlands.
Anna Kaniewska, The users of the archival holdings of the State Archive in Lodz in yeras 1996-2006
The purpose of this article is to describe the users of the archival founds within the period 1996-2006. The work was based on the statistical annual reports and the information from the database called SUMA.
Jerzy Skoracki, Liquidation of Artificial Fibre Plant Wistom. Misery or Inevitable Necessity?
The article presents the economic and social reasons for the liquidation of the largest plant producing chemical fibers. It includes a lot of data to justify such a decision. The closing part presents the positive social effects of the liquidation of the outdated factory.
Rocznik Łódzki ©