Witold Filipczak, The Activity of Royalists at the Parliments of the County of Rawa in the years 1780-1786
In the times of the Permanent Council the palatinate of Rawa was dominated by the supporters of Stanisław August Poniatowski. The royalists’ influence prevailed not only at the pre-Sejm sejmiki (in Rawa, Sochaczew and Gąbin), but also at deputational sejmiki held in Bolimów. Though the royalists were more numerous in the palatinate, their influence was not undisputed. In 1782 Władysław Mieczyński, belonging to the malcontents, was elected a deputy from Sochaczew. In 1786 Stanislaw Lipski, who cooperated with the king’s opponents, became a deputy from Rawa. Bazyli Walicki, Palatine of Rawa, was the leader of Royalists, whose outstanding representa- tives were Franciszek Leszczyński and Jan Rzeszotarski. In the area of Sochaczew the king’s most prominent sup- porters were Castellan Adam Lasocki and podkomorzy Stanisław Gadomski, who both played significant roles in the state institutions. In 1785 Adam Lasocki became the Marshal of the Crown Tribunal, whereas S. Gadomski was the Marshal of the Sejm in 1786. The most important person in the Gostynin area was podkomorzy Józef Mikorski, although local Castellan Antoni Lasocki was a royalist too. Finally, Maciej Łączyński, starosta of Gostynin, was also active in the royalist party.
Jarosław Kita, Picture of the Private Town Community in the Polish Kingdom in the First Half of Century. Research postulates
In the first half of the nineteenth century almost 2/3 cities in the Polish Kingdom had status of private. They were part of the landed property belonging to the landowners. In the current historiography, the private towns community in the Polish Kingdom were never separate study. This article’s aim is to place research questions. Answering these questiones make possible presentation picture of this community. Moreover, this article includes the selection of the most important sources, which are useful for the realization of this project.
Urszula Oettingen, Citizens of Lodz in First Infantry Regiment of Polish Legions
The article is devoted to the citizens of Lodz region who served in First Infantry Regiment of First Brigade of Polish Legions. The base of these speculations is the book of this regiment which was written in the middle of 1917 and includes about 2500 names of the soldiers. From these names the author selected a group of 102 people who came from Lodz region. The list of these people was placed in the enclosed Annex which includes first name and surname, year and place of birth, religion, profession, date of joining the Legions and place of residence before the war. In reference to the course of armed hostilities and the political situation, the author characterized this group from various points of view.
Włodzimierz Kozłowski, The commanders of the 30th Riflemen of Kaniów Regiment (Warsaw; the 2nd Battalion in Tomaszów Mazowiecki until november 1924) 1918-1939. The attempt of characterization. Part I, 1918-1932
In November 1918 Poland regained her independence after 123 years of slavery. During the years 1918-1921 the fights for new Polish borders took place. In the period 1921-1939 the state was divided into 10 Military
Districts with IV Military District (Łódź) among them. Three infantry divisions were located in this region. One of them was the 10th Infantry Division with headquartes in Łódź.
Karol Chylak, Polish National Catholic Church in Lodz (1928-1951)
There have been many attempts of introducing Polish language into the liturgy of Roman Catholic Church. Such projects were more or less successful and the undertaking that is known as one of the most successful and durable is an activity of Franciszek Hodur. An origin of this phenomenon should be looked for at the end on XIX century, where, among a large number of independent Polish parishes in the society of Americans of Polish origin, there have been formed three main centres: in Chicago, Buffalo and Scranton in the years 1897-1904. The Scranton centre have become Polish National Catholic Church (PNKK) in time.
Krzysztof W. Mucha, The Political View on the County of Lodz, in the Light of Local Elections in the Period 1933-1939.
This article applies to local elections of the municipal and city councils of cities in the county of Lodz in the periods 1933 to 1934 and 1938 to 1939. These elections were conducted in accordance with the provisions of the new governmental law of 1933 about local authorities. There are results of elections and discussion on them, as well as comparison with previous results from the years of 20s twentieth century in the text.
Przemysław Waingertner, Genesis and the Beginnings of Activity of the Association of Polish Victims to Third Reich - Lodz Province Department
Use of Polish forced labour in Nazi Germany during World War II occurred on a large scale. It was an important part of the German economic exploitation of conquered Polish territories. It also contributed to the extermination of populations of German–occupied Poland. After World War II Polish workers received almost no compensation as forced labourer in Nazi Germany are the Polish forced labourers. According to the Potsdam Agreements of 1945, the Poles were to receive reparations not from Germany itself, but from the Soviet Union share of those repatriations; due to the Soviet pressure on the Polish communist government, the Poles agreed to a system of repayment that de facto meant that few Polish victims received any sort of adequate compensation. In 1988 the Association of Poles Exploited by Third German Reich (then the Association of Polish Victims to Third German Reich and from 1993 the Association of Polish Victims to Third Reich) was created in Poland and also its department in Lodz Province. Its main task was to receive the compensation for Polish forced labourer. The main founders of the Association of Polish Victims to Third Reich - Lodz Province Department and its presidents were: Adam Lipiński, Kazimierz Wasilkowski, Tadeusz Skrzypkowski and Mirosław Olejniczak.
Krzysztof Lesiakowski, General elections in Poland in June 1989 – Overview after 20 years
General elections in Poland on the 4th Jun 1989 were one of the critical moments in Polish history after Second World War. It was hard to predict that communist regime gave up general rule expressed by Wladyslaw Gomulka: when we come to power, we will never give up. Confirmation to this words was a martial law in 1981.
Maria Żemigała, Przygródki at Royal Castles in Greater Poland and the Kujawy Region in the Years 1564-1565
Faced with the outbreak of the Polish-Swedish War in 1563, the Polish Parliament, with the king’s consent, ordered a detailed list of all royal property to be made. A special commission was set up for each province. In the years 1564-1565, nineteen large royal estates (dominia) were described by the commission in Greater Poland and the Kujawy region. Each record opened with a description of the castle or manor. All the nineteen castles and manors were accompanied by a separate yard (przygródek), where the fundamental services, including stables, administrative buildings with kitchens or bakeries, breweries and baths, were located. The present paper contains descriptions of particular buildings and relevant analyses. The preparation of these facilities for the arrival of the king, his attendants and officials as well as royal convoys is also subject to assessment. It has been established that such structures were first build at castles in the second quarter of the 15th century and that the term przygródek was found in a document as early as 1447. In fact, in the years 1564-1565, when the above-mentioned inventory of the royal property was prepared, yards of this type had already become obsolete.
Tadeusz Poklewski-Koziełł, The Łódź Connections of Karol Niezabytowski of Lubicz
Karol Niezabytowski (1865-1952) was the author’s grandfather’s brother. Until 1939, he was a major landowner, first in Belarus (until 1917) and then in Greater Poland and Podlasie within the borders of the Second Commonwealth of Poland. In the years 1926-1929, he was the Minister of Agriculture of the Polish government. Starting from 1939, he lived outside Poland, first in France and subsequently in the United Kingdom, where he wrote a 240-page diary of his entire life. He never returned to Poland and died in Great Britain.
Aleksy Piasta, School Inspectorate in Piotrków Trybunalski - office Organization and processes Creation of Acts (1917-1939)
Supervision of primary education in the areas occupied by Austrian troops exercised since 1915, a special office - School Inspectorates. Since 1917, they were subject to the Government of the Regency Council in Warsaw and were rebuilding the Polish educational institution in the former Polish Kingdom. School Inspectorate in Piotrków oversaw virtually until the outbreak of World War II, across two counties - Piotrków and Radomszczań. The competencies of the school inspectors were the case study programs and staffing in the public schools. The State Archive in Piotrków preserved records of schools in the district of Piotrków. The records of the county Radomsko were completely destroyed after 1945. In 1931 the school inspectorate offices to apply special instructions Registry. Files produced in Inspectorates were laid and formed the basis of the property lists of issues. Transformations taking place in the government chancellery practice of the Second Republic were finding reflected in the activities undertaken in the office of the School Inspectorate in Piotrków.
Tomasz Walkiewicz, Archives about Genealogy Research in the State Archive in Lodz
For several years genealogical research has become very popular in Poland. It can be observed in
state archives, which are the main data source for genealogical researchers. The present article is based on information from State Archive in Lodz and shows what kind of genealogical research sources can be found there. These sources relate to the 19th and 20th century and occurred almost in all archival funds. They can be found in cities and communities acts; guilds acts; social, cultural, scientific, religious organisations acts and trade union acts; political parties and juvenile organisations acts; civil administration acts – general and special ones; justice institution acts; schools and school authorities acts; economic and private acts. The article shows and characterises the most important and basic sources as well as the less popular ones, which are rarely used by genealogical researchers. To the first group belong: civil registers, population registers, inhabitants registers; to the second group belong for example: personal files, mortgage registers, various lists and personal registers.
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