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Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia historica


ROCZNIK ŁÓDZKI
TOM 57, 2010


SUMMARY

   Witold Filipczak, The Activity of Royalists at the Parliments of the County of Rawa in the years 1780-1786

   In the times of the Permanent Council the palatinate of Rawa was dominated by the supporters of Stanisław August Poniatowski. The royalists’ influence prevailed not only at the pre-Sejm sejmiki (in Rawa, Sochaczew and Gąbin), but also at deputational sejmiki held in Bolimów. Though the royalists were more numerous in the palatinate, their influence was not undisputed. In 1782 Władysław Mieczyński, belonging to the malcontents, was elected a deputy from Sochaczew. In 1786 Stanislaw Lipski, who cooperated with the king’s opponents, became a deputy from Rawa. Bazyli Walicki, Palatine of Rawa, was the leader of Royalists, whose outstanding representa- tives were Franciszek Leszczyński and Jan Rzeszotarski. In the area of Sochaczew the king’s most prominent sup- porters were Castellan Adam Lasocki and podkomorzy Stanisław Gadomski, who both played significant roles in the state institutions. In 1785 Adam Lasocki became the Marshal of the Crown Tribunal, whereas S. Gadomski was the Marshal of the Sejm in 1786. The most important person in the Gostynin area was podkomorzy Józef Mikorski, although local Castellan Antoni Lasocki was a royalist too. Finally, Maciej Łączyński, starosta of Gostynin, was also active in the royalist party.

   Jarosław Kita, Picture of the Private Town Community in the Polish Kingdom in the First Half of Century. Research postulates

   In the first half of the nineteenth century almost 2/3 cities in the Polish Kingdom had status of private. They were part of the landed property belonging to the landowners. In the current historiography, the private towns community in the Polish Kingdom were never separate study. This article’s aim is to place research questions. Answering these questiones make possible presentation picture of this community. Moreover, this article includes the selection of the most important sources, which are useful for the realization of this project.

   Urszula Oettingen, Citizens of Lodz in First Infantry Regiment of Polish Legions

   The article is devoted to the citizens of Lodz region who served in First Infantry Regiment of First Brigade of Polish Legions. The base of these speculations is the book of this regiment which was written in the middle of 1917 and includes about 2500 names of the soldiers. From these names the author selected a group of 102 people who came from Lodz region. The list of these people was placed in the enclosed Annex which includes first name and surname, year and place of birth, religion, profession, date of joining the Legions and place of residence before the war. In reference to the course of armed hostilities and the political situation, the author characterized this group from various points of view.
   With regard to the socio-occupational status, most of the citizens of Lodz region were craftsmen, which shows the general tendency in all three brigades of the Legions. The specific character of this group became visible here, namely the relatively high number of weavers, which was connected with the development of textile industry in this region. With regard to age, 80% of citizens of Lodz region from this group were born in the years 1893-1898. Their average age was about 21. There is also discussed the intensity of influx to the First Regiment in various chronological periods from August 1914 to the middle of 1917 and the oath crisis. It results from the data that the majority of the citizens of Lodz region, who served in the regiment in the middle of 1917, joined it in the first half of 1915. It was connected with the relocation of legion institutions at the beginning of this year to the region of Piotrkow and Radomsko, and with the fights of First Brigade on the territory of Kingdom of Poland.
   The aim of this article was to indicate the necessity of research on personal composition of Polish Legions with reference to specific groups of socio-occupational, age, national and religious character and also with refer- ence to territorial origin. The selected group of citizens of Lodz region is not numerous; yet, when analyzed it shows certain regularities, which may be applied to the whole ‘legion community’. 

   Włodzimierz Kozłowski, The commanders of the 30th Riflemen of Kaniów Regiment (Warsaw; the 2nd Battalion in Tomaszów Mazowiecki until november 1924) 1918-1939. The attempt of characterization. Part I, 1918-1932

   In November 1918 Poland regained her independence after 123 years of slavery. During the years 1918-1921 the fights for new Polish borders took place. In the period 1921-1939 the state was divided into 10 Military Districts with IV Military District (Łódź) among them. Three infantry divisions were located in this region. One of them was the 10th Infantry Division with headquartes in Łódź.
   In the period of peace the 10th Infantry Division composed of 3 infantry regiments (28th, 30th, 31st) and the 10th light artillery regiment. Following commanders of the 30th infantry regiment in the period (1921-1939) were officers in the ranks of lieutenant colonel and colonel. The article presents their military education, battle merits, age, period of military service in Warsaw, battle and military decorations and following lots - till their deaths.
   In the period 1918-1939 the 30th Riflemen of Kaniów Regiment was commanded by 9 officers. This article presents 6 consecutive commanders (1918-1932). They were: Franciszek Korewo, Kazimierz Jacynik, Eugeniusz Kunisch, Izydor Modelski, Stefan Wyspiański and Konstanty Pereświet-Sołtan. Two of them had higher military education (E. Kunisch and I. Modelski). Moreover one of the commanders was doctor of philosophy (I. Modelski). Two of them became generals (K. Jacynik and I. Modelski). All of them were good and professional commanders of regiment. The 30th Riflemen of Kaniów Regiment was stationed in Warsaw. It was on representative duty too.
   In September 1939 the 30th Riflemen of Kaniów Regiment fought with Germans as a part of Army „Łódź”. The many of the soldiers from this regiment were active in conspiracy and they fought on the fronts of the World War 2.

   Karol Chylak, Polish National Catholic Church in Lodz (1928-1951)

   There have been many attempts of introducing Polish language into the liturgy of Roman Catholic Church. Such projects were more or less successful and the undertaking that is known as one of the most successful and durable is an activity of Franciszek Hodur. An origin of this phenomenon should be looked for at the end on XIX century, where, among a large number of independent Polish parishes in the society of Americans of Polish origin, there have been formed three main centres: in Chicago, Buffalo and Scranton in the years 1897-1904. The Scranton centre have become Polish National Catholic Church (PNKK) in time.
   The first priest of PNKK, who was Franciszek Bończak, came into Lodz, the second large Polish city, in 1924. However, his stay didn’t bring in result in the form of establishing a new parish then. Only after four years, in October 1928, the priest Bronisław Jeager comes into Lodz. This former Roman Catholic clergyman, who had been a supporter of priest Huszno for a short period of time, started organizing a new institution of PNKK fairly vigorously. His work was found fruitful as in February 1929 the first domicile of Saints Cyril and Methodius’ parish was located at 22 Podleśna St.
   After the split in PNKK, Lodz parish has taken sides with Bishop Faron. When the situation was stable, the Faron’s national church commences a time of significant development. Since 1934 there have been three parishes in Łódź: the oldest one, Saints Cyril and Methodius’ parish (26 Łagiewnicka St.); Holy Family’s parish (moved into 54 Radwańska St.) and The Trinity’s parish (57 Wólczańska St.).
   PNKK’s community, although not large with respect to the number, struggling huge and various troubles, constitutes an important component of the cultural map of Lodz. Its existence is not only an input into religious heterogeneity of Lodz but also one of the colours of the social rainbow of this city. Complementing a wide range of colours, it also indicates the elements of social life of the city, which aren’t able to be seen from the other perspectives.

   Krzysztof W. Mucha, The Political View on the County of Lodz, in the Light of Local Elections in the Period 1933-1939.

   This article applies to local elections of the municipal and city councils of cities in the county of Lodz in the periods 1933 to 1934 and 1938 to 1939. These elections were conducted in accordance with the provisions of the new governmental law of 1933 about local authorities. There are results of elections and discussion on them, as well as comparison with previous results from the years of 20s twentieth century in the text.
   Changing of the electoral law pushed some people away from engaging in the act of voting. Raising the age for both of the passive and active electoral rights precluded a large group of citizens from opportunity to decide on matters of local communities. Also indirect elections of members of municipal councils were a step backwards from the legislations, which were in force in the twenties. The introduction of law making a governmental admin- istration entitled to a supervision of a division of constituencies, approving the validity of local elections and the power to approve the resolutions of the councils, also created the possibility of state interference in local issues. In practice this regulation limited the autonomy of local authorities. These changes, did not make the state more democratic, but largely reflected the authoritarian tendencies of the ruling Sanacja government.

   Przemysław Waingertner, Genesis and the Beginnings of Activity of the Association of Polish Victims to Third Reich - Lodz Province Department

   Use of Polish forced labour in Nazi Germany during World War II occurred on a large scale. It was an important part of the German economic exploitation of conquered Polish territories. It also contributed to the extermination of populations of German–occupied Poland. After World War II Polish workers received almost no compensation as forced labourer in Nazi Germany are the Polish forced labourers. According to the Potsdam Agreements of 1945, the Poles were to receive reparations not from Germany itself, but from the Soviet Union share of those repatriations; due to the Soviet pressure on the Polish communist government, the Poles agreed to a system of repayment that de facto meant that few Polish victims received any sort of adequate compensation. In 1988 the Association of Poles Exploited by Third German Reich (then the Association of Polish Victims to Third German Reich and from 1993 the Association of Polish Victims to Third Reich) was created in Poland and also its department in Lodz Province. Its main task was to receive the compensation for Polish forced labourer. The main founders of the Association of Polish Victims to Third Reich - Lodz Province Department and its presidents were: Adam Lipiński, Kazimierz Wasilkowski, Tadeusz Skrzypkowski and Mirosław Olejniczak.

   Krzysztof Lesiakowski, General elections in Poland in June 1989 – Overview after 20 years

   General elections in Poland on the 4th Jun 1989 were one of the critical moments in Polish history after Second World War. It was hard to predict that communist regime gave up general rule expressed by Wladyslaw Gomulka: when we come to power, we will never give up. Confirmation to this words was a martial law in 1981.
   Considering general elections in Poland on the 4th June 1989 after 20 years we can notice their great historical value. Voting for “Walesa team” millions of Poles showed that they refused permission on previous status quo. That event was a kind of frontier, behind which the return to the past was not possible. Poland received a great chance for historical transformation. As it had occurred, not every of the changes were desirable. Moment of triumph quickly faded away. In opinion of many people the whole process that leaded to general elections was unclear and talks that were held between communist and opposition were backstage. Summarizing, Polish histori- ography needs treatise about general elections in June 1989 to consolidate the meaning of that event.

   Maria Żemigała, Przygródki at Royal Castles in Greater Poland and the Kujawy Region in the Years 1564-1565

   Faced with the outbreak of the Polish-Swedish War in 1563, the Polish Parliament, with the king’s consent, ordered a detailed list of all royal property to be made. A special commission was set up for each province. In the years 1564-1565, nineteen large royal estates (dominia) were described by the commission in Greater Poland and the Kujawy region. Each record opened with a description of the castle or manor. All the nineteen castles and manors were accompanied by a separate yard (przygródek), where the fundamental services, including stables, administrative buildings with kitchens or bakeries, breweries and baths, were located. The present paper contains descriptions of particular buildings and relevant analyses. The preparation of these facilities for the arrival of the king, his attendants and officials as well as royal convoys is also subject to assessment. It has been established that such structures were first build at castles in the second quarter of the 15th century and that the term przygródek was found in a document as early as 1447. In fact, in the years 1564-1565, when the above-mentioned inventory of the royal property was prepared, yards of this type had already become obsolete.

   Tadeusz Poklewski-Koziełł, The Łódź Connections of Karol Niezabytowski of Lubicz

   Karol Niezabytowski (1865-1952) was the author’s grandfather’s brother. Until 1939, he was a major landowner, first in Belarus (until 1917) and then in Greater Poland and Podlasie within the borders of the Second Commonwealth of Poland. In the years 1926-1929, he was the Minister of Agriculture of the Polish government. Starting from 1939, he lived outside Poland, first in France and subsequently in the United Kingdom, where he wrote a 240-page diary of his entire life. He never returned to Poland and died in Great Britain.
In 1891, he received a large landed property and woodlands lying on the River Berezyna near Bobrujsk from his father. The property flourished due to food processing plants and timber and wood factories. At the same time, not wanting his business to be geographically limited, he entered the Russian market, especially its European part, as well as the British and French markets. Łódź, which had been developing as a major industrial centre for fifty years, became one of his areas of investment. He took the first step by buying an army barracks, then shares in the city’s slaughterhouse, and finally purchased the company erecting the Savoy Hotel. The barracks were subsequently sold to the Polish Army, which was just being formed. He also transformed the City’s slaughterhouse association into a consortium building town slaughterhouses throughout Poland, which proved a highly profitable business. However, the Savoy Hotel became the cause of financial failure for him. This undertaking had led him to come into contact with some financial fraudsters, who persuaded him into stock trading. As a result, he bought some stocks of a non-existing oil search and exploitation company based in the vicinity of Lvov.
Karol Niezabytowski trusted the defrauders, because among them were an acquaintance of his from before World War I, a landowner in Belarus, and an Englishman, a supposed specialist in petroleum exploitation. This group of swindlers brought about the elimination of Niezabytowski from the Savoy Hotel company. The financial loss he suffered amounted to 2/3 of the total amount invested. Daunted by this considerable financial failure, he refrained himself from doing further businesses in Łódź.
The article is illustrated with excerpts from Karol Niezabytowski’s diary, which contain very personal accounts of his investment projects and financial operations connected with the city. The material has so far remained unknown among historians dealing with the history of Łódź.

   Aleksy Piasta, School Inspectorate in Piotrków Trybunalski - office Organization and processes Creation of Acts (1917-1939)

   Supervision of primary education in the areas occupied by Austrian troops exercised since 1915, a special office - School Inspectorates. Since 1917, they were subject to the Government of the Regency Council in Warsaw and were rebuilding the Polish educational institution in the former Polish Kingdom. School Inspectorate in Piotrków oversaw virtually until the outbreak of World War II, across two counties - Piotrków and Radomszczań. The competencies of the school inspectors were the case study programs and staffing in the public schools. The State Archive in Piotrków preserved records of schools in the district of Piotrków. The records of the county Radomsko were completely destroyed after 1945. In 1931 the school inspectorate offices to apply special instructions Registry. Files produced in Inspectorates were laid and formed the basis of the property lists of issues. Transformations taking place in the government chancellery practice of the Second Republic were finding reflected in the activities undertaken in the office of the School Inspectorate in Piotrków.

   Tomasz Walkiewicz, Archives about Genealogy Research in the State Archive in Lodz

   For several years genealogical research has become very popular in Poland. It can be observed in state archives, which are the main data source for genealogical researchers. The present article is based on information from State Archive in Lodz and shows what kind of genealogical research sources can be found there. These sources relate to the 19th and 20th century and occurred almost in all archival funds. They can be found in cities and communities acts; guilds acts; social, cultural, scientific, religious organisations acts and trade union acts; political parties and juvenile organisations acts; civil administration acts – general and special ones; justice institution acts; schools and school authorities acts; economic and private acts. The article shows and characterises the most important and basic sources as well as the less popular ones, which are rarely used by genealogical researchers. To the first group belong: civil registers, population registers, inhabitants registers; to the second group belong for example: personal files, mortgage registers, various lists and personal registers.


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