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Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia historica


ROCZNIK ŁÓDZKI
TOM 55, 2008


SUMMARY

   Tomasz Pietras, In the Matter of Origin of Sulima Familly from Łęczyca

   The Sulimas were the Polish knight family, not very large, but well known because of Zawisza the Black, the most famous Polish knight. The Sulimas lived in Major and Minor Poland, in Silesia, in Cuiavia, in Masovia, in the Łęczyca land and in Ruthenia in XIVth and XVth centuries.
   In this article there are analysed origins of the family and political circumstances of its migration to the other parts of Polish territory.
   The name of “Sulima” probably derives from the village, which was the seat of the family ancestors, located in the Gniezno district or in the Sieradz district.
   The Sulimas began political splits and migration (circa 1150-1250) because of the domestic wars, which were waged between the members of the Piast dynasty. The ancestor of the Sulima family lived in Major Poland in the half of the XIIth century. In the same time this family probably lived in Minor Poland and in Silesia. Budzisław son of Strzeszek, the ancestor of the lineage who lived in the Łęczyca land, was probably an official of Prince Konrad of Masovia and his sons (about the half of the XIIIth centrury). Budzisław’s family came from Minor Poland.
   The name “Sulima”, which was used in Major Poland for the first time, was known also in other parts of Poland in the turn of XIVth century. This name was mentioned in a written source in 1397. The coat of arms, mentioned in 1325, came from the Gamrat family who lived in Minor Poland. The half-eagle was of black colour. It is possible Zawisza the Black modified its colour at the beginning of the XVth century. He wanted his coat of arms to become similar to Sigismund of Luxembourg’ coat of arms.

   Jarosław Kita, Owners of Bąkowa Góra in XIXth century. Contribution to turnover of estate in Polish Kingdom

   Searching in mortgage deeds and notarial acts, source not very often used by historians to research over landowners, shows on a large scale the turnover of estates on terrain of Polish Kingdom in period of annexation. Reasons for becoming estates on next owners property, were more than once enough complicated and not always they made up the only simple after-effect of bequest, family account of property, purchase-the sale or else the auction of the indebted property. Turnover of estates in XIX century, being a consequence of inheritance proceeding and consequential of purely factors, turned also national and patriotic character. Frequent changes of this same estates owners during national uprising and directly after defeat, they had in view impossible of their confi scation by the annexation authorities. Perfect illustration of complicated XIXth century’s conditions, in what came to turn with estates on terrain of Polish Kingdom, are history of wide property of Bąkowa Góra, which in short period changed owners repeatedly, for in the end became, for nearly one century, a property of family Ostrowski, coat of arms Korab.

   Leszek Olejnik, The Press of Polish Socialist Party in Łódź in years 1899-1948

   The article presents the history of the Polish Socialist Party press (polish abbrev. PPS) in years 1899-1948 in Łódź. It begins with a short episode connected with publishing by Józef Piłsudski a central organ of PPS – “Robotnik” (“Workman”) in this city. Since 1900 r. there was established a periodical called “Łodzianin”, which was fi rstly issued abroad. Then the printing-house was transferred to Łódź during revolution in 1905. In years 1905- 1907 the socialists from Łódź published, apart from “Łodzianin”, also “Der Deutsche Arbeiter in Polen” – a magazine for German workers. After scission in PPS (November 1906) fi rstly both fractions published periodicals with the same title – “Łodzianin”. In years 1908-1915 there was a break in publishing this magazine but it was reissued during The First World War. After reclamation of independence by Poland in March 1919, “Łodzianin” was issued legally. From the end of 1920 till May 1921 a central organ of PPS became a newspaper and was issued as “Dziennik Robotniczy” (“Journal of Workers”), but then it was issued with former title. “Łodzianin” was reissued (with break in years 1933-1936) till the beginning of Second World War. During the last years before Second World War “Łodzianin” was a mutation of central newspaper of PPS – “Robotnik”. In that time a redactor of the newspaper was Henryk Wachowicz.
   After 1939 the socialists of Lodz were able to publish a few conspiracy newspapers such as “Kuźnia”, “Na barykadzie”, “Polska podziemna”, “Walka Ludu” etc.
   From February till December 1945 in Lodz there was published a central organ of PPS – “Robotnik”, edited by Jan Dąbrowski. Then, in the end of September that year there was established a local periodical “Pobudka” (published weekly) and in autumn, a local newspaper called “Kurier Popularny, edited by Artur Karaczewski. In that newspaper in summer 1946 there was publicized series of articles of PPS leader – H. Wachowicz. That series had title “Listy do przyjaciela z PPR (“Letters to friend from PPR”) and the author criticized cooperation of both workers’ parties – PPR and PPS. After the union of those parties in December 1948, “Kurier Popularny” was not issued anymore.
   Then the party which was established in Lodz 1987 with the same name, connected to publishing traditions of PPS from the period before 1945. Till the decay of 1989, a periodical „Robotnik Łódzki PPS” was issued. The last press title of PPS in Lodz was “Łodzianin” issued only once in May 1990.

   Włodzimierz Kozłowski, The Commanders of the 28th Kaniów Regiment (Łódź) 1918-1939. The Attempt to Characteristic

   In November 1918 Poland regained her independence after 123 years of slavery. During the years 1918-1921 the fights for new Polish borders took place. In the period 1921-1939 the state was divided into 10 Military Districts with IV Military District (Łódź) among them. Three infantry divisions were located in this region. One of them was the 10th Infantry Division with headquartes in Łódź.
   In the period 1918-1920 the 10th Infantry Division composed of infantry regiments (28th, 29th, 30th, 31st) and artillery. The 28th infantry regiment, also called the Regiment of Children of Lodz was one of them. Then it was named the 28th Kaniów Rifle Regiment (Łódź). During the wars it was commanded by 7 officers. In the period od peace the 10th Infantry Division composed of 3 infantry regiments (28th, 30th, 31st) and the 10th light artillery regiment. Following commanders of the 28th infantry regiment in the period (1921-1939) were 12 officers in the ranks of lieutenant colonel and colonel. The article presents their military education, battle merits, age, period of military service in Łódź, battle and military decorations and following lots - till their deaths.    In September 1939 the 28th Kaniów Rifle Regiment fought with Germans as a part of Army „Łódź”. The many of the soldiers from this regiment were active in conspiracy and they fought on the fronts of the Second World War.

   Witold Jarno, The Origin and Structure of Łódź Military District Headquarter in Warpath in the First Half of 1945

   The article presents the creating and organizational development of the Command of Military District number VI in Lodz. This district was one from six Military Districts which were created on Polish land with spring of 1945 in the final stage of second world war. In the command of Military District No. VI in this period dominated officers of the Red Army, which fi lled most of higher commanders’ positions. Gradually structures of the command headquarters were extended, by creating of next organizational units. At that time competences of regional commands were limited and they concentrated on issues connected with conscription and supplementing Polish army lighting at the front. This situation changed in August 1945, when it was taken fundamental reorganization of the Polish army. Then it, in the connection from her transition for the peaceful organization and enlargement of number of Military Districts to seven - structures of commands headquarters of those districts were reorganized. As a result of these operations, Military Districts stood themselves true territorial commands equipped with full of military power. It began new peaceful period in their history.

   Ewa Witkowska-Urban, The Participation of Stefan Truchim in Creation and Development of Łódź Academic Center

   Stefan Truchim (1896-1967) graduated from the Jagiellonian University in Cracow. Then he worked as a high school teacher in Poznan. Since 1930 he united with the Polish Independent University (department of Lodz). He lectured on history of educational system at the Pedagogical Faculty whereafter also he carried on the seminars and monographic lectures. In 1933 he became an assistant professor. In the years 1930’ the main stream of his research has shaped; it was concerning the educational system and culture in the epoque of antique and the epoque of educational reforms in Poland in XVIII century. During the II World War S. Truchim carried on the secret classes given at the PIU (Polish Independent University). After the year 1945 he settled in Lodz. He was a cooriginator of the University of Lodz, the Pedagogical Faculty (he was a dean of this Faculty) and of the Unit of History of Education. He promoted several hundred of Masters of Art (MA), he achieved triumphs training the new generation of academic personnel. After obtaining the professor title in 1957 he became the head master of the Department of History of Upbringing and Education. In his scientifi c research he kept on continuing his previous interests. In the years 1960’ he initiated the meetings of Lodz’s and Poznan’s academic circles.

   Alicja Szymczakowa, The Medieval Book of the Government Office of Łódź

   The article introduces to the oldest book of the activity of government office of Łódź in 1470-1542 years. There are 82 cards and 329 notes including. The notes refer to the transaction of sales and buying, exchanges and liens of the property, agreements, divisions of the fortune, dowries, debts and quittances from debts, testaments, legacies for the parish church.
   The book represents duties of the justice’s court in Łódź and its methods of work. The minutes were written on loose-leaves through an accidental writers. The author distinguished 4 types of notes considering a form.

   Zdzisław Włodarczyk, The Controversy Regarding the Construction of Synagogue in Wieluń

   Jewish religious community came into being in this town in the beginning of the eightteen twenties. The main problem of the community was lack of proper building temple for a considerable increase of the faihful. In 1819 the local Jewes bought a square with a house (previously property of the Piarist Order). Several years later in 1833 they appled for synagogue’s bulding permit. Unfortunately they went through legal formalities lasted many years. The design for the synagogue in the city centre gave rise to controversy, especially around representatives of local Catholic clerge. The fatality rested on the bulding came back to it many years after the temple was builted. The synagogue was bombed the 1st September of 1939 and was pulled down at the German occupation’s authority command.

   Tomasz Olszacki, The Castle of Besiekiery – Selected Elements of Build-up in Written, Iconography and Exploratory Sources

   The castle in Besiekiery (nearby Łęczyca, woj. łódzkie) was built by Sokołowski-family (court of arms: Pomian) in the end of 15th or beginning of 16th century. After Sokołowski-family, in 16-18th century, the castle was property another noble families, as Batory, Rakoczy, Szczawiński and Gajewski. In the fi rst half of 19th century the old seat was deserted. Now, it is a picturesque ruin on the quadrangle plane (38 x 40 m), with the big, long house on the nord side, and the gate-tower on a front of the south defensive-wall. There are some archival descriptions (inventories) of the castle and it’s equipment from 17-18th century, also iconography from 19th and the beginning of 20th century.
   The castle was an object of fi eld’s works, carried out by Institut of Archaeology University in Łódź (Aleksander Andrzejewski, Leszek Kajzer and Tomasz Olszacki) in 2007. The article presents a gate-tower with a drawbridge and chapel on the first floor, a building in the south-west part of the courtyard which was established probably in the second half of 16th century, and the place of an old castle’s kitchen. The results of excavations in conjunction with the results of the analysis of written sources and iconography allowed for the reconstruction of the castle in Besiekiery.

   Anna Kaniewska, The Basic Principles and Organization of Disclosement of Archival Materials and Registry Information Support in State Archives of Łódź

   The State Archive in Lodz is one of the 30 Polish regional archives. The history of Archive in Lodz dates back to the year 1926. Presently the archives are stored in 3 separate buildings in the city. One of our main golas is enabling access to documents.
   The article briefly present the organization of the accessibility to the documents in the State Archive in Lodz. The first part describies general rules and archival law related to access to the archival materials. The second part present principles which have to be obey by archival holdings users and characterize the faiding aids available for them in the reading rooms.

   The documents of the Security Force of Lodz concerning the reactions of local citizens to events in Poznan in June 1956 (“Poznan’s June”). Elaboration and Preparation by Łukasz Jastrząb

   In june 1956 in Poznan it came to demonstartions of the workers protesting against increased quotas, bad working conditions and deterioration of social and living conditions. In the course of those events the confl ict with army occurred and, as a consequence 57 people were killed and 650 injured. Those events of june ’56 were a shock not only for the citizens of Poznan, but as well for the authorities, which were fl ooring the demonstrating workers so brutally. The situation resounded all over Poland, including Lodz. The Security Force offi cials were preparing the reports, they were collecting all the opinions and denunciations. Published reports are held in the Institute of National Memory (IPN) in Warsaw. They are presenting the attitudes of Lodz citizens towards the news coming from Poznan. During the numerous meetings, gatherings and mass-meetings the workers of Lodz were expressing their solidarity with the workers of Poznan, who were protesting. They demanded as well the amelioration of working and living conditions.


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